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Polyhydramnios is defined as the presence of too much amniotic fluid in the placenta.
Throughout the nine months of pregnancy, the amniotic fluid will vary in its composition and quantity, and it is essential that a certain balance be maintained: not too much, not too little.
The causes of this pathology have three origins: maternal, fetal or placental.
1. Maternal causes of polyhydramnios:
- Poorly controlled maternal diabetes.
- Rh isoimmunization.
- Infections: such as toxoplasma, rubella, cytomegalovirus….
2. Fetal causes:
- Gastrointestinal disorders (duodenal, esophageal atresia, gastroschisis, diaphragmatic hernia), cause the fetus not to swallow and swallow the liquid normally.
- Neurological problems.
- Achondroplasia (lack of growth).
- Multiple pregnancy.
- Hydrops fetalis.
- Some lung disorders.
3. Placental causes: they are the least common, but some alterations in this organ can disrupt the balance of amniotic fluid production.
The amount of amniotic fluid is monitored throughout pregnancy, either by ultrasound where its amount is estimated; or in the midwife's office, who checks the uterine height at each visit, which is used to assess the normal growth of the baby or the suspicion of too much or too little amniotic fluid.
At the end of pregnancy, mild polyhydramnios may occur that is not usually associated with any type of pathology, if the pregnancy has been normal and we have been monitored by the midwife and the gynecologist in the scheduled visits.
When we have a more serious polyhydramnios, the management is varied: it can be treated with medications or extracting the extra fluid, but if we suspect an infection or genetic alteration, an amnioscopy should be performed to have all the possible data about the cause.
Women with polyhydramnios are more likely to go into labor prematurely. The baby's delivery will be in a hospital with the presence of specialists who can provide immediate evaluation and treatment.
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